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According to David Wechsler, intelligence is the ability to act directed, think rationally, and face the environment effectively. In general it can be concluded that intelligence is a mental ability that involves the process of thinking rationally. Therefore, intelligence can not be observed directly, but must be inferred from the various concrete actions that are manifestations of the rational process of thinking. 

The factors that affect intelligence are: 
Factors congenital or offspring 

Research proves that the correlation of IQ test score from one family is about 0.50. Among the twins, the IQ score was very high, about 0.90. Another evidence is in the adopted child. Their IQ is correlated about 0.40 to 0.50 with actual fathers and mothers, and only 0.10 to 0.20 with their adoptive fathers and fathers. Further evidence on twins who grew up separately, their IQ remains highly correlated, although they may never know each other. 

Environmental factor 

Although there are characteristics that basically have been brought at birth, the environment is able to cause significant changes. Intelligence certainly can not be separated from the brain. The development of the brain is strongly influenced by the nutrients consumed. In addition to nutrition, emotional cognitive stimuli from the environment also play a very important role. 

Intelligence and IQ

 People often equate the meaning of intelligence with IQ, whereas these two terms have very different meanings. The meaning of intelligence already described in the front, while the IQ or the level of Intelligence Quotient, is a score derived from an intelligence test kit. Thus, IQ gives little indication of the extent of one's intelligence and does not describe one's overall intelligence.

IQ scores are first calculated by comparing mental age (Mental Age) with chronological age (Chronological Age). If the individual's ability to solve the problems presented in the intelligence test (mental age) is equal to the ability that should exist in the individual his age at that time (chronological age), then the score will be scored 1. This score is then multiplied by 100 and used as a Basic IQ calculations. But then the problem arises because once the brain reaches kemasakan, no more developments occur, even at a certain point will decrease the ability. 

Measurement of Intelligence 

In 1904, Alfred Binet and Theodor Simon, two French psychologists designed an evaluation tool that could be used to identify students who needed special classes (less intelligent children). The test kit is called Binet-Simon Tests. This test was later revised in 1911. 

In 1916, Lewis Terman, an American psychologist made many improvements from the Binet-Simon test. The main contribution is to establish a numerical index that expresses intelligence as the ratio (ratio) between mental age and chronological age. The result of this improvement is called Stanford_Binet Test. Such an index has actually been introduced by a German psychologist named William Stern, who later became known as Intelligence Quotient or IQ. Stanford-Binet test is widely used to measure the intelligence of children up to the age of 13 years. 

One reaction to the Binet-Simon test or the Stanford-Binet test is that the test is too general. A character in this field, Charles Sperrman argues that intelligence consists not only of one general factor, but also of more specific factors. This theory is called Factor Theory of Intelligence. The test kits developed according to this factor theory are WAIS (Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale) for adults, and WISC (Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children) for children.

In addition to the above test kits, many test kits are developed with a more specific purpose, in line with the purpose and culture in which the test kits are made.

 Intelligence and Talent 

Intelligence is a concept of the general ability of individuals to adapt to their environment. In this general skill, there are very specific abilities. These specific abilities give the individual a condition that allows the achievement of certain knowledge, skills, or skills after an exercise. This is what is called Talent or Aptitude. Since an intelligence test is not designed to uncover these particular abilities, talent can not be readily known through intelligence tests.

The tools used to uncover special abilities are called aptitude tests. Aptitude tests designed to reveal the learning achievement in a particular field is called the Scholastic Aptitude Test and is used in the field of work is the Vocational Aptitude Test and Interest Inventory. Examples of Scholastic Aptitude Test are the Academic Potential Test (TPA) and Graduate Record Examination (GRE). While examples of Vocational Aptitude Test or Interest Inventory is a Differential Aptitude Test (DAT) and Kuder Occupational Interest Survey.

In addition to the above test kits, many test kits are developed with a more specific purpose, in line with the purpose and culture in which the test kits are made. Intelligence and Talent Intelligence is a concept of the general ability of individuals to adapt to their environment. In this general skill, there are very specific abilities. These specific abilities give the individual a condition that allows the achievement of certain knowledge, skills, or skills after an exercise. 

This is what is called Talent or Aptitude. Since an intelligence test is not designed to uncover these particular abilities, talent can not be readily known through intelligence tests. The tools used to uncover special abilities are called aptitude tests. Aptitude tests designed to reveal the learning achievement in a particular field is called the Scholastic Aptitude Test and is used in the field of work is the Vocational Aptitude Test and Interest Inventory. Examples of Scholastic Aptitude Test are the Academic Potential Test (TPA) and Graduate Record Examination (GRE). While examples of Vocational Aptitude Test or Interest Inventory is a Differential Aptitude Test (DAT) and Kuder Occupational Interest Survey. 

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Intelligence and Creativity

Creativity is a hallmark of intelligent behavior because creativity is also a manifestation of a cognitive process. However, the relationship between creativity and intelligence does not always show satisfactory evidence. Although there is an assumption that creativity has a linear curve of relations with intelligence, but the evidence obtained from various studies do not support that. A low IQ score is followed by a low level of creativity. But the higher the IQ score, not always followed by a high level of creativity. Up to a certain IQ score, there is still a significant correlation. But even higher, there was no relationship between IQ and creativity levels.

Experts have been trying to figure out why this happened. J. P. Guilford explains that creativity is a divergent thinking process, that is, the ability to provide alternative answers based on the information provided. Instead, the only intelligence test designed to measure the process of convergent thinking, the ability to give an answer or a logical conclusion based on the information provided. This is the result of a traditional educational pattern that does not pay much attention to the development of divergent thinking processes although this ability proves to be very instrumental in the various advances achieved by science.

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